Qom city is one of the biggest centers in theology and religious ritual training with a privileged position in religious, political and social development progress in recent decades. Beside the religious, pilgrimage and historical attractions such as ancient and historical holy shrine of Hazrat Masoumeh, the daughter of 7th Shia Imam, Jamkaran mosque, more than hundreds of other Shrines, seminary, significant historical mosques, educational and international institutes and natural attractions are the cause of people immigration to this city. Agriculture, animal husbandry, traditional and modern poultry are common in Qom from the past. The people who live in Qom speak in Farsi with Qomi dialect, although other nations with different religions, languages and dialects live there, too. Most of the residents are Muslim and Davazdah Emami Shia.
In the 8th century Qom was one of the centres of Shiʿi Islam. In 816 Fāṭimah, the sister of the eighth imam of the Twelver Shiʿah, ʿAlī al-Riḍā, died in the town and was buried there. It became a place of pilgrimage in the 17th century, when the Ṣafavid rulers built a golden-domed shrine over Fāṭimah’s tomb.
The modern city has the largest madrasah (theological college) in the country, where students can specialize in Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and logic. It was at Qom that the Iranian army surrendered to Islamic revolutionary militia in 1979. Following the Islamic Revolution in Iran early in 1979, the revolution’s principal figure, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, again took up residence in Qom, whence he had been exiled by the shah, and made the town his seat. Some 10 kings and 400 Islamic saints are interred in Qom and its neighbourhood. Shāh ʿAbbās II is buried there in a special mausoleum richly adorned with 14 fine silk rugs, dated 1666. On the southern side of the city is a group of five mausoleums (mostly 14th century) distinguished by remarkable polychrome stucco ornaments.
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